- SOME FACTS FROM THE HISTORY OF ENGLISH
- THE LANGUAGE WE ARE LEARNING
- WHY WE LEARN IT
- WHERE WE USE IT
- WHERE AND BY WHOM IT IS SPOKEN
1. Answer these questions.
How long have you been learning English?
Do you learn English only at school?
Where else is it possible to learn a foreign language?
Have you ever tried to learn English on your own (reading books, watching educational programmes on TV, videos and films in English, listening to radio programmes)?
Which of these ways of learning a language do you find mosteffective? Why?
How much time do you think a person should learn a foreign language to be able to say:
a) “I can speak English”, b) “My English is fluent”?
Do you think it is possible to know a second language as well as native speakers do?
Why are you learning English? Do you find it interesting? Hard? Useful? How can it be useful?
Why do you think people learn foreign languages?
Do you think language learning has become less popular or more popular recently? Try and prove it.
2. Say true, false or don’t know. Correct the false statements.
The English spoken in the USA and Australia doesn’t differ from the English spoken in Great Britain.
There are many borrowed words in English,
People cut down long words to get new ones.
There are three English-speaking countries in the world.
Some words came to English from Russian.
There are 450 words in Webster’s Third New International Dictionary.
All dictionaries are always made in two languages.
You can learn English only if you live in an English-speaking country.
English is the most popular foreign language in Russia.
There are thirty-two letters in the English alphabet.
3. Look at the map and see how many countries of the English-speaking world you can name. In some of these countries English is a native language (say in which) and in others it is another official language. You can use the box for help.
1. Great Britain
2. The USA
5. New Zealand
9. Sri Lanka
11. Papua New Guinea
12. South Africa
15. Sierra Leone
4. Complete the tag questions and let your classmates answer them.
You know everything about English grammar, ...?
You can tell an American from1 an Englishman when you talk to them, ...?
English is taught in all schools of Russia, ...?
Students don’t like to do tests in foreign languages, ...?
Nowadays all educated people should know English, ...?
5. Look at the table to remember how to form simple tenses. Give examples of your own to illustrate each formula.
The Simple (Indefinite) Tenses
1 to tell sb from sb else — отличить кого-то от кого-либо другого
6. A. Study the Reference Grammar material (p. 324—327) to find out how to use simple tenses.
B. Look at the examples and say which of the rules they illustrate.
The year has four seasons.
Thank you very much, I won’t forget your kindness.
We occasionally go to the seaside in summer.
Peter drove straight on for ten minutes and then turned off the road.
Dinner will be ready when mother comes back from work.
Sorry, I don’t understand him, he is talking so fast.
I’m afraid I forget her telephone number.
It rained for the whole day yesterday and we had to stay indoors.
7. A. Match the two parts of these proverbs and sayings.
1) Honesty is
2) Bad news
3) It never rains
4) Rome was not built
5) If you run after two hares,
a) travels fast.
b) in a day.
c) you’ll catch none.
d) but it pours.
e) the best policy.
B. Choose one phrase and say how you understand it. Give an example or examples to illustrate it. Think of a Russian proverb or saying which expresses the same idea.
8. Work in pairs and make up a dialogue in which one of you will be an interviewer and the other — a famous scientist who can say what is to be expected in the future. Use future simple. These ideas can help you.
how the population of the world will change;
if people will have enough food, water, oil, etc.;
how people will travel; where they will live;
if the climate will change and how;
if there will be any forests and wild animals left;
if there will be any separate countries and languages;
if people will go into space and/or live under water;
if people will be happy.
9. Complete these sentences.
Example: We’ll go to the cinema when you do your lessons.
We’ll go to the cinema if you do your lessons well.
I’ll call you later if ... .
He’ll never be happy if ... .
The plants will grow better if ... .
I’ll write a poem when ... .
We’ll go skiing when ... .
Jane will learn French if ... .
I won’t speak to you if ... .
They’ll work on the computer as soon as ... .
Our group will visit Sydney when ... .
I’ll feed the dog and walk him as soon as ... .
10. Express the same in English.
— Я звонил тебе вчера, но ты не ответил. — Да, я вчера гулял в это время. Я гулял два часа перед сном.
Когда бы Лиза ни готовила, она всегда готовит прекрасно.
Ты сыграешь на гитаре, если я буду петь?
Металлы плавятся при высоких температурах.
— Где ты купила эту ручку? — Я не помню. — А зачем ты её купила? — Я слышала, что такие ручки хорошо пишут.
Джон почти никогда не ходит на стадион.
Вчера у меня был удивительный день: что бы я ни делала, у меня всё прекрасно получалось. Я закончила сочинение, купила маме подарок и сама сделала открытку к её дню рождения.
Когда мы жили у бабушки, мы обычно ели овсянку на завтрак.
Мне сказали, что он предпочитает французский итальянскому.
Когда ты ходила в библиотеку в последний раз? .
11. Look at the table to remember how to form continuous tenses. Give examples of your own to illustrate each formula.
The Continuous (Progressive) Tenses
12. A. Study the Reference Grammar material (p. 327—328) to find out how to use continuous tenses.
B. Look at the examples and say which of the rules they illustrate.
Lucy is coming to see us on Sunday morning.
Tom was only 20 when the Second World War began. He was living with his mother at that time.
He is always borrowing money!
(In a restaurant) — What would you like to drink, sir? — Nothing, thank you. I’m driving.
At this time tomorrow I will be lying on the beach.
As I was walking down the road I saw Irene.
I can’t take the phone: I am washing up.
While I was reading John was playing the guitar.
It was raining all night.
13. Choose the correct tense: present simple or present continuous.
Do you know that water (freezes/is freezing) at -4 °C.
Sue (looks/is looking) very smart today: she (wears/is wearing) her new black evening dress.
Robert (plays/is playing') football best of all in the team.
I (don’t eat/am not eating) honey: it always (makes/is making) me sick.
What beautiful swans! Look! One (swims/is swimming) towards us.
— What (do you look/are you looking) at? — This book. It hasn’t been here before.
— Can you explain the rule again? I (don’t understand/am not understanding) it, I am afraid.
My father usually (has/is having) coffee in the morning, but today he (has/is having) tea.
Where (do you go/are you going)? May I go with you?
Fewer and fewer people (smoke/are smoking) tobacco nowadays.
14. Match the questions and answers.
1) What languages does he speak?
2) Is he speaking German to us?
3) Do you buy any periodicals?
4) Why are you buying this funny hat?
5) Do you go to the opera at all?
6) Are you going with us?
7) (At) what time do you usually get your mail?
8) Are we going home already?
9) Who is solving the mystery of the lost notebook?
10) Does Holmes solve all the mysteries easily?
a) I like it. I think I can wear it at the Halloween party.
b) Between seven and eight in the morning.
c) Yes, dear. It is getting dark.
d) Yes, he does. He is a great detective.
e) I’d like to.
f) Just one — his native.
g) Sherlock Holmes is. He is a great detective.
h) Yes, I do, but not many.
i) I don’t think so. I think he is speaking Spanish.
j) I do, but not very often.
15. Compare the pictures. Say what is different in picture B. (There are ten differences.)
Example: The bird in picture В is singing. It is not singing in picture A.
16. Put the verbs in the correct tenses.
— What you (do) at about 9 o’clock tonight? — I don’t know yet. Probably I (watch) television.
— What you (think) about? — My brother. I often (think) about him these days.
When I (be) younger, I (prefer) bananas to all fruits, but now I (eat) only citrous fruits.
Yesterday evening, when my sister and I (do) our homework, the telephone (ring). I (answer) it and (hear) a strange voice.
— Could you give me a lift? — Not today, I (not drive) I (go) by bus. Sorry.
Tomorrow after classes John (work) in the library. He usually (go) to the library after classes. He (prepare) for his exams.
— You (fly) to the sea or (go) by train? — I (fly); my flight is tomorrow morning.
— Whom you (talk) to when I (meet) you in the shop? — To my friend. We (do) shopping together.
— How can I get to the station? — I (take) you in my car. I (go) to the station myself.
Usually Mary (not make) mistakes in her spelling, but yesterday she (do) the spelling test rather badly. I hope she (learn) the new words now.
They (walk) in silence for a long time and then Ben (turn) to Johnny and (smile), “Why you never (tell) me about your family?” he (ask).
If someone (call), tell them I (be) free after seven.
17. Express the same in two different ways. (See Reference Grammar, p. 326.)
Example: Some time ago we often went to the cinema together. We don’t do it any longer.
a) Some time ago we used to go to the cinema together.
b) Some time ago we would go to the cinema together.
In summer we lay in the sun and swam in the river. Now we don’t do it.
When I was seven, I went to the toy shop and looked at the toys there. I don’t do it now.
My father played the piano when he was younger. He doesn’t do it any longer: he has no time.
When the Smiths came to Moscow, they always stayed with us. Now they stay at the hotel.
In older times people often wrote letters to each other. Not many people do it now.
When my granny was young, she and her friends danced a lot. But now she says she is too old for dancing.
18. Complete these phrases to express stronger feelings.
Example: They are never coming ...! They are never coming on time!
Jim is always laughing ...!
Granny is always buying ...!
My elder brother is constantly giving ..,!
Jane is always making jokes ....!
Why are you constantly ...?
Why is he always ...?
They are never ...!
19. Express the same in English.
— Почему ты плачешь? — Я не плачу. Я никогда не плачу.
Дождь шёл всю ночь, а теперь дождь не идёт. На улице ярко светит солнце, но дует холодный ветер.
Оливер обычно катался верхом, когда жил в деревне. Теперь он живёт в городе, но часто вспоминает о тех днях.
— Что ты будешь делать завтра в четыре часа дня? — Не знаю. Думаю, что я буду в это время плавать в бассейне, а может быть, буду играть в баскетбол.
— Мама приезжает завтра. — Я знаю. Я вчера весь день убирал квартиру.
— Где ты купила этот диск? — Не помню. Но я слышала, что они продаются повсюду.
Никола никогда не ест мясо, она вегетарианка (vegetarian).
Если ты придёшь вовремя, мы будем б это время обедать и ты сможешь присоединиться к нам.
Мэри завтра будет шестнадцать лет. У неё будет вечерицка. Ты придёшь?
20. A. Use to where necessary to complete the sentences.
Have you ever seen fish ... jump?
How can you make a child ... learn to be polite?
We all want you ... be very happy.
Yesterday I heard someone ... say that the weather was going to change.
I’ll let you ... go to the cinema if you are good.
Sara didn’t expect her mother ... give her a pet as a birthday present.
I didn’t notice him ... leave the room. 8. The children were made ... learn a long poem by heart.
In the dark the boy felt his father ... take him by the hand.
Margo would like her teacher not ... be so strict.
B. Express the same in English.
Все мы слышали, как Миша говорил по-английски с американцами.
Кто ожидал, что Джейн выиграет соревнование?
Меня заставили сделать всю работу снова и не разрешили идти гулять.
Позволь мне объяснить тебе, почему я опоздала.
Нина почувствовала, что кто-то дотронулся до её руки.
Маленькая вочка с интересом наблюдала, как лебеди и утки плавали в пруду.
Я не ожидала, что он так изменится.
Нам бы хотелось, чтобы нашим гостям понравился наш город.
21. A. Read the words in transcription and find the countries on the map (p. 25).
B. Listen to the recording, 4, and check your reading.
22. A. Look at the phrasal verbs, remember what they mean and give examples to show how to use them. (Student’s Book VI, Units 14, 18, 20, 21 can help you.)
B. Complete the sentences by putting the right verb in.
James was carefully ... down what the teacher was saying.
— I’d like a cheese pizza, please. — To eat here, or to ... away?
Who is going to ... after your cat when you are away?
The coat I bought is too small for me, do you think I should ... it back to the shop?
I have no time to read the book, but I’d like to ... it through.
I won’t ... off my jacket: I’m not staying long.
Is it a true story or have you ... it up?
Unfortunately she didn’t ... after her mother, she is a lazybones.