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Unit 2.
English - a Language of the World


New Words to Learn

39. A. Read and guess what the words in bold type mean.

The foundations (usually in the plural) of a building are usually below the ground; they are made to support the building.

He lived in complete isolation in the country; no one ever came to see him and he never saw or spoke to anyone.

His memory was fantastic: he could read a whole page and memorize [memararz] it in three minutes.

An idiom is a group of words with a special meaning. For example a mystery tour is an idiom but has little mystery about it. It means a pleasure trip in which the travellers do not know where they will be taken. To get into hot water doesnt mean getting into any water. It is an English idiom that means to be in trouble because of bad behaviour. A white elephant is not an animal, it is an idiom which means something very expensive but useless.

In English general questions are spoken with a rising intonation [.intaneijn] and special questions are spoken with a falling intonation.

We had dinner and afterwards we all helped with the washing-up.

Jack is always so helpful: he does a lot of things about the house. It was very helpful of you to clean the windows.

Whats his mother tongue? Im not sure, French, perhaps.

B. Look the words up to make sure that you have guessed right.

40. Read the words, look them up and then study the word combinations and sentences to know how to use them.

a drill (n): a grammar drill, a spelling drill. A drill is a way of teaching something with the help of repetition or special exercises.

an interpreter (n): a good interpreter, to talk through an interpreter. I couldnt speak Italian so Maria was my interpreter in the shop. Natasha knows English well and often works as an interpreter for tourist groups. He spoke very little French so I talked to him through an interpreter.

to interpret (v): 1. To interpret is to translate immediately into another language what someone is saying. We didnt know Italian and Paul had to interpret for us.

2. to interpret a novel, to interpret a dream, to interpret someones words. I am not quite sure how to interpret his question. Can you interpret the meaning of the word isolation?

to practise (n): Youll never learn to speak English fluently if you dont practise. He had to practise playing the piano for hours before the concert.

practice (n): a lot of practice, to be out of practice, it takes a lot of practice to do something. It takes practice to become a good teacher. Max is not a very good driver yet: he hasnt had enough practice. Practice makes perfect,

related (adj): unrelated, related words, to be related to sb or sth. This problem is related to the economic situation in the country. They are related by marriage.

up-to-date (adj): an up-to-date car, up-to-date information, up-to-date ideas. We should use up-to-date methods in teaching.

old-fashioned (adj): old-fashioned clothes, old-fashioned glasses. What a funny old-fashioned radio! Im afraid such ideas are quite old-fashioned.

average (adj): an average temperature, an average person, above average, below average. An average thirteen-year-old child should be able to understand it. His knowledge of the language is above average.

rude (adj): a rude manner, a rude person, to be rude to sb. Dont be rude to your mother! Its rude to leave without saying goodbye. I dont like him: he is always rude to me.

to realize (v): 1. I didnt realize that Mark was your friend. Do you realize your mistake? All people should realize that we live on a small and fragile planet.

2, to realize a plan, to realize ones wish/dream. I hope she will realize her dream to be an actress.

to disappoint (v): to disappoint sb, to disappoint sbs hopes. I'm sorry I have disappointed you.

disappointed (adj): to be disappointed at/about sth, to be disappointed with/in sb. I must say Im disappointed in you. We were disappointed to hear that our friends were not coming. Mary is so disappointed about her new house.

almost (adv): ~ nearly. Dont go away because dinner is almost ready. Its almost lunehtime. I almost think you are right.

41. A. Use the words from Ex. 39, 40 and give the opposite to these: polite, modern, firstly, useless, happy, to forget, unrelated.

B. Make up your own sentences with these words.

42. A. Name three things that can be:


B. Name three things that you can:


43. Give it a name.

  1. not fashionable any longer;
  2. to translate sbs speech into another language;
  3. willing to help, useful;
  4. to know and to understand the importance of something;
  5. later, after that;
  6. to understand;
  7. a group of words used together as a word combination with a special meaning;
  8. the part of a building that supports it;
  9. rise and fall of the voice;
  10. ordinary, not special or the middle member of a group;
  11. training someone by doing an exercise again and again;
  12. connected;
  13. fashionable, modern or new;
  14. sad or unhappy because the things you hoped for do not happen;
  15. to do something often so that you will do it well;
  16. taking or acting in a way that makes other people sad or angry

44. Complete these sentences using the words from Ex. 39, 40.

  1. Our team is ...ing for the match on Saturday.
  2. Its important to say things with the right ... .
  3. Clothes of 20 years ago look very ... today.
  4. Whats an ... temperature in Moscow in winter?
  5. Are those two boys ...? Yes, they are cousins.
  6. Its ... to turn your back when someone is talking to you.
  7. It takes a lot of ... to play the piano well.
  8. Thank you very much, youve been very ... with washing-up.
  9. As soon as I opened the door I ... that there was no one at home.
  10. Norman was very ... because his team had lost the final match.
  11. My teacher thinks that grammar ... are very important.
  12. I didnt know Spanish, and Maria ... for me.

45. Express the same in English.

  1. .
  2. (keep) , .
  3. , , .
  4. , , (enlarge) .
  5. ,
  6. , .
  7. .
  8. ?

46. A. Complete the sentences using the right adjective from the table above.

  1. Please come home before it gets ... .
  2. If you are ..., get some juice out of the fridge.
  3. My parents got ... 15 years ago.
  4. Can you help me, please? Im afraid Im ... . Where is the metro station?
  5. Why are your hands so ... ? Have you been watering the flowers?
  6. It had got so ... that we had to stay at home.
  7. I know youre ... . Go to bed and have a good sleep.

B. Complete the sentences using be or get in the right form.

  1. ... your sister married? No, she isnt. She is going to ... married next summer.
  2. It has already ... dark. Why dont we turn back and walk home?
  3. Yesterday I ... so tired that I couldnt even wash up after dinner. How did you ... so tired?
  4. Its very unpleasant when it suddenly ... windy and cloudy.
  5. Dont ... late for school, please.
  6. ... you hungry again? We've just had breakfast!
  7. If you ... sick, well call the doctor.