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Let Us Read and Learn

7. a) Read the words in transcription.

b) Listen to the tape, 7, and check your reading.


The Present Perfect
Tense (Durative)

The Present Perfect
Continuous Tense

for, since

have/has V3

I have known Ann for 5 years.
He has had the bike since his father bought it.

have/has been Ving

I have been learning English for 5 years.
He has been writing a letter since he came home.

havent/hasnt V3

We havent been here since Monday.
She hasnt seen Mary for a long time.

havent/hasnt been Ving?

They havent been sleeping since 5.
She hasnt been working since 2 oclock.


Have/Has ... V3?

Have they lived here for 3 years?
Has Tom known Bill since last year?

Have/Has ... been Ving?

Have they been playing football for an hour?
Has he been reading Alice in Wonderland long?

8. Say why these people are tired and what they have done.

Example: Nick is tired because he has been playing tennis for three hours (since two oclock) and has won two games.

  1. Sam to ride a bike for... to ride 3 miles.
  2. Mary to do the shopping since... to buy a lot of food.
  3. Bill to read detective stories for... to read 2 stories. 4. Sally to make pancakes since... to make 50 big pancakes.
  4. Roy to watch videos for... to see 2 films.
  5. Jack to train since... to throw the ball 100 metres.
  6. Sarah to wash up for... to break a few plates.
  7. The children to plant flowers since... to plant a lot of primroses.

9. Express the same in English.

  1. , . ? . .
  2. ? , , . .
  3. . . !
  4. 15 . ? . . . .
  5. - ? . 2002 .



out (of)

to be in
to stay in
to get in

to breathe in
to come in
to eat in

to be out
to stay out
to get out

to breathe out
to come out
to eat out

10. Fill in either in or out to complete the sentences.

  1. Is your father ...? No, he is ... .
  2. My elder brother got ... the car and drove away.
  3. When you breathe you take a breath of air into your lungs.
  4. If you stay ..., you remain at home. If you stay ..., you remain away from home.
  5. She breathed ... through her lips to cool the hot tea.
  6. Mrs Smith never eats ... . She always has her meals at home.
  7. A car stopped and a tall man got ... .

11. a) Read and guess what the underlined words mean.

  1. Climatic changes can be dangerous for people.
  2. Plants cant live without water and sunshine.
  3. We took the plants out into the garden. The effect was just wonderful: in a few days they looked green and fresh again.
  4. Sunlight is the light from the sun.

b) Look these words up to make sure that you have guessed right.

12. Read the words, look them up and then study the word combinations and sentences to know how to use them.

an influence (n): Television has a strong influence on people. We dont know everything about the influence of climate on people,

to influence (v): Id like to know what influenced his decision.

human (adj): human voices, human nature. To make mistakes is human. He didnt expect to hear human voices in the old house,

a human (n): Humans have been exploring the planet for thousands of years. Could a computer ever beat a human at chess?

to ruin (v): to ruin buildings, to ruin the harvest. The storm ruined our picnic. Why are you ruining your health? A lot of cities were ruined during the war.

a greenhouse (n): a greenhouse of glass. A greenhouse is a building with glass walls and roof where plants grow. My mother usually grows tomatoes in the greenhouse.

the greenhouse effect: The greenhouse effect is the problem of a rise in temperature in the earths atmosphere,

heat (n): The unusual heat in June killed all my lilies,

to produce (v): to produce goods. What does the farm produce?

huge (adj): a huge animal, a man of huge strength. The huge animals that once lived on the earth died many centuries ago.

a coast (n): the coast of the sea. There are many towns on the coast of the Black Sea.

fragile (adj): fragile flowers, fragile health, fragile happiness. Fragile things break easily. Is glass very fragile? A fragile lady appeared on the screen.


to influence sb/sth

1. His speech greatly influenced the people.
2. The book influenced his choice of a future profession.
3. Computers have influenced the world of science a lot.

to have an influence on sb/sth

1. His speech had a great influence on the people.
2. The book had a strong influence on his choice of a future profession.
3. Computers have had a great influence on the world of science.

13. Name three:

people who have influence on you
things that can ruin the harvest
vegetables that we usually grow in greenhouses
things that are fragile

towns situated on the coast
huge things
parts of human body
things that we burn to warm our houses
makes1 of cars produced in Russia

14. Listen to the dialogue, 8, and say which is colder: the South Pole or the North Pole.

At the zoo

A: Just look at that great white polar bear! Isnt it nice? I think it looks absolutely like a big soft toy.

: It does, doesnt it? A toy indeed! For your information its one of the strongest animals in the world and very fierce2.

A: Is it? An animal with such funny button eyes and thick soft fur?

B: Dont be silly. And speaking of the fur, though its thick I cant understand how the polar bear can live in the coldest place of the world.

A: This is where youre making a mistake. North only sounds colder than South.

B: What do you mean?

A: Actually, the little penguins of the Antarctic live in a colder climate than the bears of the Arctic where the temperature is a few degrees higher.

15. Learn the dialogue of ex. 14 by heart and act it out. Dont forget to change over.

1 a make ()
2 fierce