by 5 o’clock; by Sunday; by that time; by the end of the year; by the second of May
My cousin had left by the first of April.
My father had written the letter by that time.
... when ...; ... after ...; ... before ...
The train had already left when we arrived.
Mother had cleaned the flat before her cousin returned.
After she had cried she felt better.
The students hadn’t finished the test when the bell rang.
When we arrived, the train hadn’t left yet.
— Had you read the book up to the end before she asked you for it?
— Yes, I had.
7. Look at the pictures and say what had happened before Alex came back home from school.
Example: Bob had cleaned the flat with a vacuum cleaner before Alex came back home from school.
8. Ann had lived in London for two years. When she returned to Los Angeles she understood that many things had changed in her city. Say what had changed.
Example: A new school had appeared near her house.
a new school/to appear
her cousins/to grow
the roads/to become wider
the streets/to become cleaner
the shops/to get more modern
a lot of Japanese cars/to appear
9. a) Read and guess what the underlined words mean.
Most of the farmland in England is in the southeast.
Grasslands are good for sheep to feed on.
There are few wildlands left in Britain. Most of them are in the north. In the USA people can enjoy the beauty of wild America in parks, forests and wildlands.
Our great-grandparents are our grandparents’ parents.
A canoe is an Indian boat.
Siberia is famous for its endless forests.
Rivers are used as waterways.
b) Look these words up in your vocabulary to make sure that you have guessed right.
10. Read the words, look them up and then study the word combinations and sentences to know how to use them.
mighty (adj): a mighty nation, a mighty army, a mighty king, a mighty empire. The Atlantic is a mighty ocean.
to rise, rose, risen (v): The River Volga rises in the Valdai Hills. The Angara rises in Lake Baikal. The Nile rises in Lake Victoria,
to stretch (n): to stretch out one’s arm, to stretch the rope, to stretch one’s legs. The forests stretched for miles. The valley stretched away into the distance as far as the eye could see. She got out of bed and stretched. He stretched out his arm to try and get the apple. I decided to stretch my legs after dinner. The wicked children stretched the rope across the path,
a shore (n): a sea shore, shores of a lake, on the shore of the ocean, to walk along the shore. It is difficult to walk on such a rocky shore. She sells seashells on the seashore. We could see some tall trees on the other shore of the lake.
a beach (n): a sandy beach, a beach ball, a beach chair. They went down to the beach for a swim. We sat on the beach and ate our sandwiches. Some of the beaches are badly littered,
a desert (n): The Sahara Desert, a hot desert wind, desert areas, a desert island. Do you know where the Sahara Desert, the Gobi Desert and the Kara-Kum Desert are situated? Robinson Crusoe lived for many years on a desert island,
a chain (n): a chain of mountains, a gold chain. She always wears a gold chain round her neck. Could you show the main mountain chains on the map of America?
an attraction (n): The Tower of London is a great attraction for tourists. The cinema has little attraction for some people, a skyscraper [’skaiskreipa] (n): a tall skyscraper. New York is a city of skyscrapers. Are there any skyscrapers in Moscow?
mixture (n): a bottle of cough mixture. I listened to his story with a mixture of surprise and admiration,
to melt (v): The sun melted the snow. His heart melted when he saw the crying girl. These chocolates really melt in your mouth,
a melting pot:1 America has been a melting pot since its beginnings.
1 a melting pot — 1) тигель, ёмкость для плавки металлов; 2) место, где собираются вместе и живут представители различных рас и национальностей
11. Match the words with their definitions.
a melting pot
a very high building different things put together
a number of connected things
sandy country with little water and few plants
your grandparents’ parents
wild, open land covered mainly with grass
a place where there is a mixing of people of different races and nationalities
12. Describe the picture, use the words:
a beach, a sea shore, a mighty river, a chain of mountains, to melt, a valley, a tourist attraction
13. Match the names of areas with the words describing them. Describe one of the areas using the words.
mighty rivers with high banks; endless tall forests; important waterways; wildlands; open lands stretching for miles and miles
high mountains; mighty waterfalls; rocky mountain peaks; deep valleys and green meadows; a lot of deep lakes with high shores; wild deer
the Scottish Highlands
farmlands; flat tulip fields; very few wildlands; a lot of short rivers with low banks; no mountain chains; no deserts; green meadows; corn fields
the Sahara Desert; two mountain ranges; bare1 rocky land; dry climate; the world’s highest temperatures; no true winter season
1 bare — зд. пустой, оголённый
14. Use the words from ex. 9, ex. 10 to complete the sentences.
Rivers have always been used as important ... .
A ... is a long, light, narrow boat, first used by American Indians.
— What do children usually do on the ... ? — Oh, they make sandcastles, lie in the sun, swim and play with big bright balls.
This tea is ... of three different sorts.
Disneyland is a place full of ... both for children and grown-ups.
At what temperature does ice ... ?
Do you know where the Moskva River ... ?
From the deck they could see a beautiful cottage on the ... of the sea.
There were some rocks on the eastern ... of the lake.
The ... was sandy and we often played there in summer.
The eagle flew up to the sky on its ... wings.
millions of stars
thousands of people
hundreds of books
five million dollars
six thousand cars
three hundred letters
There were hundreds of beautiful flowers in my granny’s garden.
I would like you to go to the florist’s and buy three hundred roses.
She had at least four thousand pupils.
Thousands of pupils visit Disneyland every year.
Millions of books are collected in the best libraries of the world.
“I know five million answers to your question, Daddy,” said the young princess.
15. Express it in English.
Миллионы писем, тысячи вопросов, сотни озёр, миллионы лиц, тысячи улыбок, сотни голосов.
Пятьсот слов, шесть тысяч домов, семь миллионов деревьев, триста мячей, восемьсот игрушек, три миллиона фунтов, двадцать семь тысяч рублей, двести городов.
16. Listen to the song “This Land Is Your Land”, 56, then sing it.
This Land Is Your Land
(words and music by Woody Guthrie)
As I was walking that ribbon1 of highway2 I saw above me that endless sky-way,
I saw below me that golden valley,
This land was made for you and me.
This land is your land, this land is my land,
From California to the New York island,
From the red-wood forest to the Gulf Stream water;
This land was made for you and me.
1 a ribbon — лента
2 a highway — шоссе, большая дорога