8. Read the text and say: a) what ways people use to make new words; b) how many words the most complete dictionary of the English language has.
Words We Use
78. As you know one of the very good ways to get new words is to borrow them from other people. English is full of words borrowed from other languages. The possibilities for borrowing words are endless.
People can also make new words by using the names of people or places or the characters in stories. The word atlas1 has that name because long ago on a famous collection of maps, there was a picture of the Greek god Atlas holding up the world.
People can make words by cutting big ones down into small ones. When you say a mechanical person is a robot, you are using a cut-down form of robotnik, which means worker in several Slavic2 languages. Nowadays people often say doc instead of doctor; phone — instead of telephone; fridge — instead of refrigerator.
You cut down long word combinations or sentences and make them into short words by joining together the first letters of each word. UNESCO3 comes from the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. MP stands for a member of Parliament, USA — for the United States of America.
One of the most complete dictionaries of the English language is Webster’s Third New International Dictionary. It has more than 450 000 words. No person knows all of them, but most grown-ups are able to understand about 35 000 words. In fact, people use only about one-tenth of the words they understand.
1 atlas — атлас
2 Slavic — славянский
3 UNESCO — ЮНЕСКО, организация при ООН по вопросам образования, науки и культуры
9. Say “true”, “false” or “don’t know”.
English has got a lot of borrowed words.
Some words came to English from Holland.
There are no Russian borrowings in English.
Sometimes names of people or places are used to make new words.
The word atlas came from Italy.
There are 550 words in Webster's Third New International Dictionary.
People usually use about 3 500 words when they talk.
MP stands for “a member of Parliament”.
VIP stands for “a very important person”.
* * * * * Let Us Write * * * * *
10. Express the same in English.
Я видела, как Анна накрывала на стол.
Мы наблюдали, как дети занимались сёрфингом.
Я хочу, чтобы ты нашла подходящее место на берегу.
Не ходи вокруг да около! Я ожидаю, что ты всё мне объяснишь.
Позволь мне посетить Австралию, папочка.
Несколько ядерных станций было закрыто на территории России, потому что люди думали, что они опасны.
Проблемы загрязнения окружающей среды будут осуждаться на конференции в Мельбурне.
Члены королевской семьи были приглашены посетить Россию снова.
Мама сказала, что стол будет накрыт вовремя.
Эта необитаемая земля редко посещается исследователями.
11. Yesterday Mrs Nelson and her two sons, Bob and Sam, were going to Sydney by bus. It was very noisy in the bus and the boys didn’t often hear what their mother was saying. All the way they asked each other one and the same question: “What did she say?” These are the things that Mrs Nelson said or asked. Report them.
“Did you hear anything of that mysterious Mr Hyde?”
“Have you read May’s periodicals?”
“Yesterday I received a lot of mail.”
“We shall go to the opera house in two days.”
“When did you send a telegram to your uncle Peter?”
“When we arrive in Sydney we will take a taxi.”
“I am sure your granny will get over the pain in her leg.”
“Your cousin is nearly sixteen.”
* * * * * Let us listen and Discuss * * * * *
12. a) Make sure that you know these words and word combinations:
the Alps — Альпы
a rucksack — рюкзак
don’t speak too soon — не торопись с выводами
b) Listen to the tape, 79, and say whose words they are:
“Sitting on a chair for eight hours every day is not very good for your health.”
“The map is flat and the mountains are not.”
“I am going to America in August.”
“Can I borrow your rucksack?”
13. Answer the questions.
What did Jack do at work?
What did he like to do during his summer holidays?
Whom did he visit one day?
What did Jack want to borrow from Nick?
How did Nick explain that Jack couldn’t walk from one place to another in one day?
14. Tell the story to your friends on Nick’s part.