16. Read the text and say if Man can influence the climate.
Climate is the weather a certain place has over a long period of time. Climate has a very important influence on plants, animals and humans and is different in different parts of the world.
Russia is the largest country of the world. It lies on a huge territory from the coast of the Pacific Ocean to the centre of Europe and its climate in the north, south, east and west is different. In the west for example, the climate is usually mild and wet. At the same time the coldest place on the planet is in the north of Siberia [sai'biana], while in the south of Russia there is a lot of sunshine and the heat in summer can be really terrible. Summer and winter temperatures are very different in Moscow, Omsk or Krasnoyarsk, in Volgograd or Rostov. In the Arctic the winter temperatures are very low. The taiga [’taiga] zone has long hard winters and short summers. Between the Black and Caspian seas it is very hot in summer.
9. But recently the climate has changed a lot in our country, especially in its European part. Some scientists think the world is becoming hotter. If you compare Moscow’s winter and summer temperatures at the beginning of the century and at its end you will see that the climate has really changed. Winters have become warmer. Sometimes there is little snow in January, and there were winters when it rained (not snowed!) on the New Year’s Eve.
Many people say that it is so because of the greenhouse effect. Have you ever heard about it? It works like this: sunlight gives us heat. Some of the heat warms the atmosphere, and some of the heat goes back into space. Nowadays the air surrounding the earth has become much warmer because the heat can’t go back into space. That’s why winter and summer temperatures in many places have become higher.
During the last 100 years people have produced a lot of carbon dioxide.1 This gas in the atmosphere works like glass in a greenhouse. It lets heat get in, but it doesn’t let much heat get out. So the atmosphere becomes warmer.
Where does the carbon dioxide come from? People and animals breathe in oxygen,2 and breathe out carbon dioxide. We produce carbon dioxide when we burn things. Trees take this gas from the air, and produce oxygen. But in the last few years, people have cut down and burnt big areas of rainforest.3 This means there are fewer trees, and, of course, more carbon dioxide!
So, the climate in different parts of the world changes a little from year to year. These changes can be dangerous for our fragile planet which needs protection. Earth is millions of years old, much older than the humans. We know many of its secrets. Yet there is still much to learn.
1 carbon dioxide — углекислый газ (двуокись углерода)
2 oxygen — кислород
3 a rainforest — тропический лес
17. Look through the text again and answer the questions.
What is climate?
Is the climate always the same in this or that part of the world? Does it change?
What can you say about the climate in Russia?
What do you know about the greenhouse effect?
Why doesn’t all the heat go back into space? Why does the atmosphere become warmer?
How can the greenhouse effect influence the climate on the planet in future?
Do you think our planet needs protection? Why?
18. Look through the text again to complete the sentences.
Climate is the weather a certain place has over...
Climate has a very important influence on...
At the same time the coldest place on the planet...
Some of the heat warms the atmosphere, and some of the heat...
People and animals breathe in oxygen and...
Trees take carbon dioxide from the air, and...
* * * * * Let Us Talk * * * * *
19. Develop the idea of each item in this outline.1 Ex. 16 can help you.
The greenhouse effect.
Possible results of the greenhouse effect.
The role of plants on the planet.
Climatic changes and their effects.
Reasons for climatic changes.
20. Many people say that the climate nowadays is going “crazy”. These are some facts proving it.
Read them through and give at least three reasons why such crazy happenings are bad for people and the planet.
The summers of 1972 and 2003 in Moscow were so hot that the forests around the capital caught fire, smoke filled the city and stayed for several days.
In January 1987 snow fell on the gondolas of Venice2 and the usually sunny coasts of France.
In 1987, 1990 and 2003 European countries had terrible storms. The strong winds ruined a lot of forest, millions of trees.
21. Some people say that those who live in a cold climate differ from those who live in hot countries. Do you believe in it? If you do, say in what way they can be different. Think of their appearance and their habits, likes and dislikes.
eat more — eat less
eat more spices — eat less spices
are more active — are more quiet
are more sensible3 — are less sensible
are reserved4 — are not reserved
are fond of bright colours — dislike very bright colours
24. Write what people have already done and what they haven’t done yet.
Example: Steve has already bought a new bike but he hasn’t ridden on it yet.
2. Jane and Pat
4. Jeff and Paul
6. Monica and Barbara
to buy a bike
to wash the dishes
to take the books from the library
to build a small cottage
to write a short story
to see the famous actress
to cook breakfast
to ride a bike
to dry them
to read the books
to paint it
to type it up
to have it
25. Pete and his parents came to London from Moscow a week ago (on the 12th of September). Write sentences about Pete. Use present perfect and present perfect continuous.
Example: Pete has been shopping for a few days. He has bought a lot of souvenirs.
1. To stay at a hotel.
2. To shop for a few days.
3. To live in London since September.
4. To be in London for a week.
5. To travel about the city.
6. To see a lot of interesting places.
7. To visit the Tower.
8. To have a boat trip on the Thames.
9. To buy a lot of souvenirs.
10. To meet a lot of English people.
11. To walk the streets of London.
12. To take pictures of London.
26. Express the same in English.
a) 1. Анна живет в Лондоне с 1985 года. Она работает в банке. Она работает там три года. 2. Билл всегда хотел побывать в Брайтоне. Он прочитал много книг об этом курорте (resort). 3. — Семья Браунов еще не выстроила свой новый дом. — Сколько времени они его строят? — Они строят его уже два года. 4. — Я вас целую вечность не видела. Где вы были? Где вы прятались? — Я пишу книгу о своих путешествиях. Пишу ее 1,5 месяца, поэтому живу на даче с мая.
b) 1. — Какая сегодня погода в Лос-Анджелесе? — Солнечно и тепло. Прекрасный день, чтобы поехать на побережье, поплавать и позагорать. 2. — Сколько времени идёт дождь? — Дождь идёт три дня. На улице ветрено, сыро и облачно. У нас осенняя погода. 3. — Какая была погода вчера в Москве? — Шёл снег, было 10 градусов ниже нуля, но было солнечно.
c) 1. Стекло очень хрупкое. 2. Мы сожгли старые листья в саду. 3. Жара имеет (оказывает) пагубное (плохое) влияние на людей. 4. Влияние учителей на учеников велико. 5. Ты когда-нибудь бывал в оранжерее? 6. Ты что-нибудь слышал о «парниковом эффекте»? 7. Что производит эта фабрика? 8. В Северной Африке более 4000 часов солнечного света каждый год. 9. На побережье достаточно прохладно, правда? 10. Какое влияние имеют климатические изменения на людей?
27. Look at the words again and get ready to write a spelling quiz on them.
climatic, sunlight, sunshine, an effect, an influence, a human, to ruin, a greenhouse, heat, to produce, huge, a coast, fragile
* * * * * Let us listen and Discuss * * * * *
28. Listen to the tape, ED 10, and put these sentences in the right order.
Renato moved to England and bought a restaurant in London.
Mr Jenkins had lunch in Renato’s restaurant.
Renato was born in Italy and lived there for thirty-two years.
Mr Jenkins told his wife about his lunch at Renato’s restaurant.
Renato decided to put some of the tables out into the street.
Renato couldn’t forget Italy and his home town.
29. Imagine that you are Mr Jenkins. Tell your wife about your lunch at Renato’s restaurant and describe a) the people that were having lunch at the same time with you; b) the food they were eating; c) the clothes they were wearing.
30. Think and say why it is important to know the climate of the place where you are going.