1. Mother said: УI want a cup of tea.Ф
Mother said that she wanted a cup of tea.
2. Sam said: УI am in Moscow for the first time.Ф
Sam said that he was in Moscow for the first time.
Past Indefinite ↠
1. My friend said: УWe met long ago.Ф
My friend said that they had met long before.
2. Linda said: УMy father bought a new car.Ф
Linda said that her father had bought a new car.
General truth, facts
Present Indefinite ↠
1. The teacher said: УWater boils at 100 degrees Centigrade.Ф
The teacher said that water boils at 100 degrees Centigrade.
2. Sam said: УMoscow is a beautiful city.Ф
Sam said that Moscow is a beautiful city.
Exact time in the past
Past Indefinite ↠
1. My friend said: УWe met on March 2.Ф
My friend said that they met on March 2.
2. Linda said: УMy father bought a car in 1995.Ф
Linda said that her father bought a car in 1995.
7. Report what these people said.
8. Express the same in English.
јнна объ€снила, что лЄд тает при температуре 0 градусов.
‘илипп сказал, что приехал в –оссию в июле.
јнна добавила, что ‘илипп любит путешествовать.
—юзи знала, что Ўекспир родилс€ в 1564 году, и сказала об этом друзь€м. 5. –оберт спросил, когда умер Ћев “олстой.
”читель рассказал нам, что римл€не впервые пришли на Ѕританские острова в первом веке до нашей эры.
ƒжон сказал, что он был в –оссии три раза.
ћы все знали, что олумб открыл јмерику в 1492 году.
јнна хотела знать, где берет своЄ начало ¬олга.
Ѕорис сказал, что никогда не бывал в пустыне.
9. a) Read and guess what the underlined words mean.
The Constitution is the main law of the country.
When people elect their government they take part in the election.
A congress is a large meeting of people coming from different parts of the country. Congressmen and congresswomen are members of the US Congress.
The Senate is one of the houses in the US Congress. A senator is a member of the law-making senate.
All the newspapers that are published in a country are called the Press.
Religion is believing in God or gods.
A helper is someone who helps.
The vice president in the US is elected together with the president of the country.
The Cabinet is a group of important ministers who help a president giving him advice on different problems.
I am sure everything will be all right, I can guarantee it.
ItТs often easy to begin a war but difficult to end it.
Slavery is a system by which people (slaves) can be owned by other people.
b) Look these words up to make sure that you have guessed right.
10. Read the words, look them up and study the word combinations and sentences to know how to use them.
a representative (n): an important representative, representatives of the country, peopleТs representatives. In the group of tourists there were representatives of many cities,
to represent (v): to represent sb at the conference (meeting, competition). Who is going to represent your class at the competition?
a trunk (n):
the trunk of a tree. I sat down on a fallen tree trunk. A hole in the trunk of a big tree was a good home for the squirrel and her young.
an elephantТs trunk. With the help of its trunk an elephant takes food and water and puts them to its mouth.
a support (n): your friendsТ support. Will you help me? I need your support.
to support (n): to support sb in sth. Will you support me in the argument? He said he wanted to go to the zoo but nobody supported him.
to obey (v): to obey the rules, to obey orders. They obeyed me without a question. Do you always obey your parents?
a term (n):
a school term, a college term. You are going to have a lot of English classes this term.
A term is a period of time between two elections when a certain president or a political party is in power.
an amendment (n): an amendment to the Constitution; to make amendments. Changes in the Constitution are called amendments.
to declare (v): to declare war on a country, to declare the meeting open, to declare oneТs loyalty to the country. Germany didnТt declare war on Russia in 1941. Jack was declared the winner of the fight. I now declare this meeting open.
a bill (n):
a hotel bill, a restaurant bill, an electricity bill. The bill for dinner was over twelve dollars. Last month my family got a large telephone bill.
a bill of parliament, the Bill of Rights, to pass a bill, to defeat a bill. The American Congress has just passed a new bill on education. The job of any parliament is to study bills and either pass or defeat them.
a decision (n): an important decision, the right decision, the wrong decision, to take/make a decision. I think that I made the wrong decision. It isnТt always easy to make a decision.
to vote (v): to vote for/against something. When you vote, you make your choice or give your opinion by raising your hand or writing on a piece of paper. The people voted УyesФ on the referendum [.refs'rendsm].
a court (n): the Supreme Court. Silence in court! Her case1 will be heard in the court.
to judge (v): to judge a case, to judge a competition, to judge the dogs at a dog show, as far as I can judge, itТs difficult to judge, judging by... Who will judge the next case? Judging by what everyone says about him, he will win the race.
a judge (n): a court judge, Judge Simpson, a judge at the competitions, a judge of music, a judge of poetry. She is a good judge of character. IТm no judge of music but I know what I like.
a citizen (n): an American citizen, citizens of Moscow. She is a British citizen but lives in India. When did he become a US citizen?
no matter how (what, where, when, who, why) means that it makes no difference how (what, where, when, who, why). IТll finish the job, no matter how long it takes. IТll go there, no matter what you may say.
all in all means taken together. All in all we spent ten days travelling in Italy.
armed forces are the military forces of the country. What can you say about the British armed forces?
1 a case Ч случай, судебное дело
11. Match the words and their definitions.
a person who settles questions brought before a court
a change to make a rule (law) better any of three or four periods of time into which a school year is divided
a person who lives in this or that city, state or country
a person who is chosen to act in place of others
a long round nose of an elephant
a room or building in which law cases can be heard or judged
an active help to get success
the Bill of Rights
a bill of parliament
a bill on education
a bill for dinner
to pass a bill
to defeat a bill
to declare war on the country
to declare oneТs loyalty to the country
to fight for peace
to fight against war
to vote for the law
to vote against the rule
to judge in (the) court
to judge (sb/sth) at the competition
12. Complete the sentences using the prepositions against, at, by, for, in, on, of, to where necessary.
All together there are twenty-six amendments ... the Costitution of the USA.
Judging ... his words he is the best football player in his school.
Half of the class voted ... the excursion to the Botanical Gardens but half of the class voted ... it.
Every bill ... the British Parliament is discussed both in the House of Commons and in the House of Lords.
To pass ... a bill means to vote ... it.
Who is going to judge ... the volleyball competition?
A new bill ... education was passed in the USA not long ago.
Progressive people all over the world fight ... peace ... war.
DonТt declare your loyalty ... your country but help your country as much as you can.
A bill ... the electricity comes every month.
13. Complete the sentences using these verbs: to support, to declare, to represent, to vote, to judge, to obey.
УI came, I saw, I conquered,Ф1 Julius Caesar ... .
УTaking a shower in the morning is a very good rule, IТd like you to ... it,Ф father said.
My friend Peter is going to ... our school at the English Language Competition.
WeТll all ... for Liza to be President of the English Speaking Club.
I think Mary speaks good French, but I donТt speak any French myself, so I canТt really ... .
IТm sure you are right and I promise IТll ... you in the discussion.
1 to conquer Ч побеждать, победить
14. a) Listen to the song УAmerica, the Beautiful*Т and sing it along, 60.
America, The Beautiful
(music by Samuel Ward, words by Katherine Lee Bates)
O beautiful for spacious skies, for amber waves of grain,
For purple mountain majesties above the fruited plain.
America! America! God shed this grace on thee,
And crown thy good with brotherhood
From sea to shining sea.
b) Try your hand at translating and give your version of the song in Russian. Discuss your versions with the teacher and choose the best one. These words and word combinations can help you.